Text Image .org Matthew Peterson

Asst. Professor of Graphic Design

N.C. State University

Research Teaching Design   Contact ↦

CV

Pursuits

Imagery, processed in a special component of human working memory, performs upon and with its reader. To consider the processing of imagery in cognitive terms is to address interaction in the most meaningful sense. Following the work of educational psychologist Joel Levin and others, I am developing a typology of performative image function, a classification system that describes images exclusively in terms of how they are processed by readers. It is inherently user-centric. Currently the performative image function typology describes thirteen functions. Among the classes of function, images can be:

4) Exploratory, having sufficient meaningful complexity that the reader must “travel” through it, piecing together a totality over a more extended engagement.
7) Metaphorical, explaining one entity in terms of another. Selective attributes of one entity (not necessarily shown) are mapped onto another.
10) Associative, incomplete until fulfilled by the reader’s creation of mental imagery.
5) Constitutive, describing some entity (physical or conceptual) in a manner that verbal language cannot, rendering parts-to-whole relationships more immediate and concrete.
8) Comparative, involving the reader in assessing similarities and differences across entities that are compositionally related.
12) Reflexive, making the reader aware of its material means of existence.
6) Narrative, suggesting the passage of time in an otherwise inert surface, via graphic projective, partitioned, graphic repetitive, natural repetitive, intrafigural, and evidentiary strategies.
9) Computational, where the reader assesses difference in quantities and/or scale. This can be used for rhetorical effect in addition to more common applications in information design.
13) Problematic, engaging the reader in a conundrum to which regular rules of interpretation are at least temporarily insufficient.

Understanding and Implementing Visual Metaphor

Peterson, Wise, Lindgren, Cox, & Mathayas

White paper funded by the Illinois Learning Sciences Design Initiative, University of Illinois, 2015

(Inset illustration by Sander Weeks)

Complete Paper (PDF) ↦

Proposal: Our goal is to begin development of a proof-of-concept for productive research in science education that focuses on the use of visual metaphor in instructional media. By “productive research,” we mean not only contributing to existing scholarship but also developing original media as both stimuli for the research laboratory and instructional content for the classroom. For instance, a comparative study might analyze differences between three versions of a tablet app on gravity, visualizing orbiting bodies, where the version deemed most successful would then be made available for others to implement. The science textbook currently functions as the source of curriculum in many science classrooms (Chiappetta & Koballa, 2002), despite deficiencies that will be difficult to address given the established North American textbook production model (DiGiuseppe, 2014). A growing resource for teachers consisting of tested curriculum materials would provide an already proven alternative to the monolithic science textbook. By developing methods for producing and studying complex and authentic instructional media, we seek to make the investment in empirical research double as direct assistance to science teachers. . .

Memorable Metaphor: How Different Elements of Visual Rhetoric Affect Resource Allocation and Memory for Advertisements

Peterson, Wise, Ren, Wang, & Yao

Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (in press)

(Inset illustration by Scott Durand)

Abstract: This paper explores how different uses of visual metaphor affect cognitive resource allocation and memory for pictorial advertisements. Metaphor is ubiquitous in advertising, and metaphors are often expressed entirely through imagery. Based on Phillips and McQuarrie’s seminal typology of visual metaphor, we selected advertisements that featured either juxtaposition or fusion structures. We then conducted a within-subjects experiment in which 36 participants viewed a series of juxtaposition and fusion ads. While viewing each ad, participants were prompted to respond to a series of visual probes. Their reaction times to these probes served as an indicator of cognitive resource allocation. Afterwards, we assessed participants’ recognition and free recall accuracy. Reaction time data showed that fusion ads required greater cognitive resource allocation and yielded more accurate recall than juxtaposition ads. These results are discussed in terms of both theories of visual metaphor and limited capacity models of cognition.

How Imagery Models Interpretation: The Classification of Image Function

13th Annual Hawaii Conference on Arts and Humanities Proceedings, 2015

Complete Paper (PDF) ↦

How Imagery Can Directly Model the Reader’s Construction of Narrative (Including an Extraordinary Medieval Illustration)

13th Annual Hawaii Conference on Arts and Humanities Proceedings, 2015

Complete Paper (PDF) ↦

Image Function Research

How does the integration of text and image in media impact the reader’s cognitive processing? To answer this question, I have defined three distinct levels of text–image integration, building on the earlier work of educational psychologists. My initial work in text–image integration has focused on instructional media for science. But the potential impact extends beyond science education. My holistic approach addresses psychological principles while remaining authentic to how designers work.

Schemes for Integrating Text and Image in the Science Textbook: Effects on Comprehension and Situational Interest

International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(6), 2016

Pages 1365–1385

Abstract: Background. The science textbook serves as curriculum in many science classrooms. Science education researchers have turned their attention to the use of images in textbooks, both because pages are heavily illustrated and because visual literacy is an important aptitude for science students. Some researchers have focused on the integration of text and image. Material and methods. Text–image integration is described here as composition schemes in increasing degrees of integration: prose primary (PP), prose subsumed (PS), and fully integrated (FI). These schemes enable research with authentic media, where the complexity of the illustrated page is not diminished for experimental purposes. . . Seventh grade subjects used media variants across 3 treatments with differing lesson content in a within-subjects design (N=158). Results. Comprehension tests revealed higher comprehension for FI over PP media variants in one of three sessions (P=0.0073). FI scores were highest for the other tests but not significantly so (P>0.05). A post-test situational interest measure revealed a significant preference pattern of FI>PS>PP. Conclusions. As textbooks follow a general PP strategy, expansion and confirmation of the results would suggest increasing the degree of text–image integration for middle school science textbooks. . .

The Integration of Text and Image and Its Impact on Reader Interest

Visible Language, 48(1), 2014

Pages 22–39

Journal ↦

Abstract: This paper addresses the design of instructional media both holistically and authentically by focusing on text–image relationships at the level of design strategy. The schema used is sensitive to working memory and cognitive load theory. Three text–image integration strategies are proposed and illustrated: prose primary (PP), with a central prose column and marginal imagery; prose subsumed (PS), with shorter prose segmented by imagery; and fully integrated (FI), where smaller textual chunks populate imagery. One hundred and thirty-seven (137) middle school students rated their interest in science textbook pages designed according to the outlined strategies. Interest measures are closely aligned with the situational interest construct in psychology. The subjects’ selections favored higher levels of text–image integration, such that FI was rated more interesting than PS, which was in turn more interesting than PP. Results were rated reliable and significant at a 95% confidence level. Comprehension and sense of task difficulty are briefly addressed.

The Integration of Text and Image, Its Cognitive Impacts for Learning with Media, and Science Instruction: A Ph.D. in Design Study

Connecting Dots: Research, Education + Practice, AIGA Design Educators Conference, 2014

Pages 124–137

Complete Paper (PDF) ↦

Comprehension with Instructional Media for Middle School Science: Holistic Performative Design Strategy and Cognitive Load

Dissertation, North Carolina State University

Committee: Meredith Davis (Chair), Nilda Cosco, James Minogue, & John Nietfeld

Fall, 2011

Library entry w/ full document ↦

Inset: Mapping reader interactions in illustrated media (science textbook pages with overlays), by Britt Cobb.

Text–Image Integration Research

An Update on the Vertical Studio Implementation at the University of Illinois

With Brad Tober

UCDA 2014 Design Education Summit Proceedings

Complete Paper (PDF) ↦

Institutionalizing the Vertical Studio: Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Logistics of Core Classes with Mixed-Level Students

With Brad Tober

Connecting Dots: Research, Education + Practice, AIGA Design Educators Conference, 2014

Pages 138–144

Complete Paper (PDF) ↦

Abstract: The vertical studio is a single-class combination of students at different levels (in this case: sophomores, juniors, and seniors) in a given program of study. The particular vertical studio model discussed here seeks to make a virtue of larger class sizes by encouraging a wider range of solutions from a more diverse group of students, and leveraging that range as instructional material. This demands very specific and tightly controlled changes to pedagogy. The administrative benefits of larger class sizes are perhaps obvious: it is a scheduling convenience rich in instructional units. Less obvious is how to make the vertical studio work as a core offering, such that it becomes a benefit for students. This paper outlines a test run and subsequent institutionalization of the vertical studio (though still temporary) in the Graphic Design program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The integration of the vertical studio into a core curriculum presents a better test of the concept than does an elective. Discussion covers principles, benefits, and problems of the vertical studio model believed to be relevant to instruction for all disciplines of design. Program-level logistics are addressed. The idea of the vertical studio, and especially this particular model, is interrogated. . .

One-on-One with iPads in a “Vertical” Graphic Design Studio Course

With Brad Tober

UCDA 2013 Design Education Summit Proceedings

Pages 201–206

Complete Paper (PDF) ↦

Abstract: The vertical model, as a strategy for structuring a studio-based course, has, until only recently, primarily seen interest and use in undergraduate architecture programs. Rather than segregate students by academic level — into sophomore, junior, and senior-level studio courses, for example — the vertical studio combines students at different levels. This means that students at different points in their academic careers have the opportunity to engage and interact, offering each other varied perspectives and bases of knowledge to work from. This acknowledges that students learn much more from seeing what others around them are doing, rather than from an instructor directly feeding them information. The vertical studio also offers a myriad of advantages related to curricular planning, such as effectively accommodating larger class sizes and integrating non-major students into what are otherwise typically core major courses. ¶ This paper presents a case study of a preliminary implementation of the vertical model into a graphic design curriculum. As a trial run for a more comprehensive future implementation, this study examines the creation of discrete vertical studio modules within an existing structure of sophomore and junior graphic design studio courses. . .

To Teach Image by Its Function: Structuring Image Making for Graphic Design Students According to Cognitive Outcomes

UCDA 2014 Design Education Summit Proceedings

Complete Paper (PDF) ↦

Abstract: Graphic design students often have access to image-oriented studio electives within schools of art and design, taught by experts in photography, illustration, and painting. What is distinct about a core image-making course for graphic designers? This question addresses the fundamentals of graphic design, possibly in opposition to what is implicitly claimed as such in many discipline-spanning foundation courses. This paper outlines two iterations of the author’s image-making course in two graphic design programs, both at public research universities, with special emphasis on the method employed in its development. The conception of image making embodied in the course is rooted in the author’s research on the cognitive function of imagery. Considering imagery in terms of the cognitive processing of its readers is an inherently user-centered approach, which distinguishes the coursework as design pedagogy. Critique methods reinforce the emphasis on goal-oriented interpretation and are critical to the integrity of the course. Assignments are classified here according to designations of exercise, project, and investigation, largely based on contextuality. Exercises isolate some fundamental aspect of graphic design without overwhelming beginning students with undue complexity, though over-simplification is a danger. . .

Inset: Educational Objectives Schematics

Visual summaries for reference, available now for free!

Covers Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised (Anderson & Krathwohl, et al., 2001) and Marzano’s New Taxonomy (Marzano & Kendall, 2007).

Two Schematic Posters (PDF) ↦

Curriculum & Pedagogy

Learning with Text and Image: The Relationship of Text–Image Integration to Interest and Comprehension

Toward an Illinois Learning Sciences Design Laboratory, University of Illinois

February 27, 2015

How Imagery Models Interpretation: The Classification of Image Function

13th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities

January 11, 2015

An Update on the Vertical Studio Implementation at the University of Illinois

With Brad Tober

UCDA Design Education Summit, Madison, WI

May 19, 2014

Institutionalizing the Vertical Studio: Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Logistics of Core Classes with Mixed-Level Students

With Brad Tober

Connecting Dots: AIGA Design Educators Conference, Cincinnati, OH

March 15, 2014

A Pedagogical Flip: Teaching Typographic Complexity to Introductory Students

With K.T. Meaney

TypeCon2012: Type & Design Education Forum, Society of Typographic Aficionados (SOTA), Chicago, IL

August 2, 2012

How Imagery Can Directly Model the Reader’s Construction of Narrative (Including an Extraordinary Medieval Illustration)

13th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities

January 11, 2015

To Teach Image by Its Function: Structuring Image Making for Graphic Design Students According to Cognitive Outcomes

UCDA Design Education Summit, Madison, WI

May 19, 2014

The Integration of Text and Image, Its Cognitive Impacts for Learning with Media, and Science Instruction: A Ph.D. in Design Study

Connecting Dots: AIGA Design Educators Conference, Cincinnati, OH

March 14, 2014

One-on-One with iPads in a ‘Vertical’ Graphic Design Studio Course

With Brad Tober

UCDA Design Education Summit, Chattanooga, TN

May 20, 2013

Comprehension with Instructional Media for Middle School Science: Holistic Performative Design Strategy and Cognitive Load (Doctoral Defense)

North Carolina State University

November, 2011

Recent Presentations

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Ninth Letter, Arts & Literary Journal, 4 issues

Creative & Art Director

Ninth Letter is jointly produced by the Creative Writing and Graphic Design programs at Illinois. The art director produces each issue in a semester’s class. Students serve as the designers, photographers, and illustrators. The design team proposes and oversees art and design features.

(Inset illustration by Kamila Glowacki)

NinthLetter.com ↦

Vol. 9, No. 1

Designers: Lucas Albrecht, Hannah Burtness, Garrett Campagna, Katy Dondzila, Alex Dye, Olivia La Faire, Taekyeom Lee, Tanner Mei, Annaka Olsen, Diane Park, Will Ryan, Cassie Tu

Photographers: Maggie Day, Brent Hofacker, Marco Novielli, Jaci Wandell

Gag comics by Billy Fore

Vol. 9, No. 2

Designers: Grace Hamann, Caitlin Howe, Scott Jackson, Maria Ludeke, Serena Moy, Elaine Palutsis, Will Ryan, Tyler Schmidt, Heather Stickney

Photographers: Harrison Hakes, Kendall McCaugherty, Alejandra Rodriguez

Vol. 12, No. 2

As Creative Director

Art Director: Joe Carpenter

Designers: Katie Geary, Robert Marohn, Benjamin Minard, Vin Park, Courtney Podgorski, Eric Pryor, Alyssa Sparacino, Gracie Sullivan

Illustrators: Jina Seo, Mew Tachibana, Sander Weeks, James Wisdom

Vol. 10, No. 1

Designers: Brandon Barker, Lauren Blackburn, Andrew Fishel, Scott Jackson, Evan Jarzynksi, Elaine Palutsis, Daryl Quitalig, Nathalie Rock, Heather Stickney, Michael Zhang

Photographers: Brittany Keating, Jack Kendall, John Menchaca, Megan Roche, Randi Stella

Illustrators: Kamila Glowacki, Colin Mosely

Design Work

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Matthew Peterson

CV

Select Work Experience & Terminal Degree

N.C. State University, Assistant Professor From 2016

University of Illinois, Assistant Professor 2011–2016

Ph.D. in Design (N.C. State University) 2011

Field Study, Chicago, Principal 2002–2005

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Design Fellow 1999–2000

Corporate web design, Raleigh, NC 1997–1999

 

Individual pattern layers by Darwin Campa, Britt Cobb, Ashley DeLappe, Ariana Farquharson, Rich Gurnsey, Megan Jett, and Henry Lancaster.

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